Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. §2411) grants the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) a range of responsibilities and authorities to investigate and take action to enforce U.S. rights under trade agreements and respond to certain foreign trade practices. Prior to the Trump Administration and since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations in 1995, which established the World TradeOrganization (WTO), the United States has used Section 301 authorities primarily to build cases and pursue dispute settlement at the WTO. However, former President Trump was more willing to act unilaterally under these authorities to promote what its Administration considered to be “free,” “fair,” and “reciprocal” trade. The recent use of Section 301 has been the subject of congressional and broader international debate.